Whether you refer to it as farming or cultivation, growing cowpeas is one of the most frequent forms of agriculture practised in our nation, India. Animals get their nutrition from cowpea, which is an essential member of the legumes class and is widely used.
Cowpeas are a type of legume plant that have black eyes and are actually beans that have been dried up. They are high in vitamin C and proteins. It is a product that goes by many various names depending on where you are. Some of the more frequent names for this condition include black eyes, belly, cowpea, and vignasinesis.
The class of foods known as legumes includes cowpea, which is a food product that is high in a variety of vitamins and minerals. Cowpeas are often utilised as animal feed due to the fact that they contain:
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin C
A comprehensive guide to growing cowpeas is provided here for your perusal. Detailed explanations have been provided for all of the significant procedures, including planting, watering, and harvesting, among others. Let’s get started…
Ideal climatic conditions
Cowpeas are most commonly grown in regions that experience hot weather. The grain legume necessitates a higher temperature, particularly as it is going through the stages of growth and development. It is important to keep in mind that cowpeas are quite susceptible to frost damage. Therefore, areas that are experiencing frost problems are likely to have cowpea cultivation that fails. The following are the climatic parameters that should be optimum for the cultivation of cowpeas:
- A soil temperature of around 10°C or 50°F and an air temperature of about 12°C are required during the seed germination phase.
- Air temperature upto 30°C should be having during the growth phase as it maximes plant growth.
- Temperature difference between day and night should be between 5°C and 10°C.
The soil in which cowpeas are grown needs to be rather warm. However, it is a plant that is capable of growing in a wide variety of soils, including sandier soils as well as soils that are more clay-like. The following are the soil criteria that you must meet, but they vary depending on the type of cowpea:
- Light soil is required for fresh cowpea production
- Dry grains and at the same time a mature cowpea
- The pH value of your soil should be in range of 5.5 to 6.5
Soil Preparation and Planting
According to Ram Gopal, a farmer from Madhya Pradesh, the first step in the process is to perform as much soil preparation and cleaning as is humanly possible in the area where the cowpeas would be planted. He also mentioned how significant the structure of the soil is. You should be knowledgeable about all of the phases that go into the preparation of the soil.
- The soil should be deeply soaked during your preperation phase in autumn season
- The soil shouldn’t become overly low as it could become unhealthy because air and water flow are carriet out.
- The general plantation stage for cowpea seeds is the spring season. That is the reason why you should be cultivating your land several times at a depth of 10-15 CM before sowing.
- After the last frost of the spring season, it is very useful to plow plow your soil once more and follow it by sowing your seeds.
- Keep soil moisture in mind before you even sow seeds
- Put your each seed bed in 60 CM and 15 CM order
- Make sure to place your cowpea seeds in the deepest of 5CM in the soil
Best irrigation methods
It is now time to give your cowpeas some water. Cowpeas demand a significant amount of care and attention when it comes to irrigation. The furrow technique of irrigation has a number of benefits, the most important of which is that it maximises plant development. Your irrigation schedules should be completed within a time frame of eight to ten days at the very most.
Fertigation of cowpeas
It is essential to provide cowpeas with phosphorus fertigation, particularly after the planting period has concluded. In the fertigation process, there should also be a contribution of nitrogen and potassium. Fertilizer dose requirements that are highly critical include approximately 10 kilogrammes of nitrogen, 10 kilogrammes of phosphorus, and approximately 8 kilogrammes of potassium.
When cowpeas are still fresh but have begun to dry out, the harvesting season can begin. Cowpeas are ready to be harvested when they begin to exude a milky fluid, which occurs throughout this time period. Within 5 to 9 weeks, the harvesting is complete if it is acceptable. Additionally, harvesting might take place twice throughout the span of a single week if desired. Be very careful not to miss the period for harvesting, since this could have a detrimental impact on the overall quality of your product.
If you want to make dry cowpeas, you shouldn’t harvest the cowpeas and let them stay on the pods. Just hold on until the phase that transitions from green to yellow reveals a colour that looks more like purple. The term for this procedure is drying. The pods are best to be harvested without going it through the cracking phase.
Health benefits of cows
Because of the high concentration of vitamins and minerals that they contain, cowpeas are exceptionally beneficial to one’s health. The following is a list of the primary health benefits that have been acknowledged by the medical community:
- Cowpeas help to fight cholesterol problems
- Maintain sugar balance and prevents disease speadness
- Auguments to fight cancer as it contains vitamin A and C
- Good source of protens
- Digestive system activities are regulated by cowpeas
- Give relief from gastro-intestinal problems, and helps to loose weight fast
- Treats iron deficiency in people
- Provides B9 and is rich in potassium